BUILDING A POWERFUL AND MODERN AFRICA

Guest Post : Written by Jacinta Oghogho Odubanjo – Broadcast Journalist with the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria 

International cooperation is critical to world peace and development. It offers opportunities for dialogues on issues of global concern like migration, trade, conflicts, technology and laws governing the international system. It is this crucial aspect of relations that defines the objectives of the Crans Montana Forum.

The Forum since 1986 has been in the vanguard of a “more humane world”. It organizes annual events involving decision-makers the world over to discuss political, economic and social occurrences requiring attention. Being a Non-Governmental International Organization, the Crans Montana Forum promotes good practices that shape the future of the world.

Recently, Dakhla in the disputed territory of South Sahara, controlled by Morocco, hosted the Crans Montana Forum on Africa and South-South Cooperation. The conference of 14-17 March 2019 was a unique opportunity for businesses, organizations, and governments to network and strengthen their relations. The forum brought together over 1000 Africans to debate issues that are of concern to the continent with the theme “Building a Powerful and Modern Africa Dedicated to its Youth”.

This edition of the Forum kicked off with the opening message of the King Mohammed VI of Morocco, read by the president of the Dakhla-Qued Eddahab Region, Mr. Yanja El Khattat. The king wants youths to be encouraged, trained and empowered to turn today’s economic potential to tomorrow’s reality. His message set the tone for discussions on security, health, the digital revolution, leadership, entrepreneurship, and economic cooperation with emphasis on the role of youths and women.

DAKHLA-AFRICA celebrated African Youth and ensured their participation in the various debates as they were officially welcomed in the 2019 class of the New Leaders for Tomorrow.

The New Leaders for Tomorrow are innovative and influential. In a panel discussion on Youth Entrepreneurship and Women’s Leadership in Africa, a 35-year-old youth activist, entrepreneur, and musician, Vanessa Mdee said education should be given to both boys and girls to enable them to reach their full potentials. Speaking at the forum, President, National Youth Council of Nigeria (NYCN), Bello Bala Shagari said African youths should abhor violence and embrace technology for smart solutions to their challenges.

Shagari’s call stems from the fact that technology has transformed the workings of world systems. People are more informed with the use of technology today compared to the past. With a smartphone one easily accesses information, communicates and educates. This assertion was buttressed in the presentation of the Director General of the Royal Institute of Strategic Studies, Toufik Mouline who stressed the need for digitization to tackle challenges facing Africa. He said digitization would open doors of opportunities for education, finance, energy, mobility, health, and agriculture.

By entrepreneurship, for example, young leaders show their professional competence and leadership experience. Bringing them from emerging African states to chat a sustainable future for the continent is such that puts the future in the hands of leaders capable of taking Africa to the summit of development. It is this hope that made my experience at the summit exciting. Having to be in the midst of people of different backgrounds, displaying the rich cultures of Africa, gave one a sense of belonging and confidence. It was also a reminder of the role of women in development.

The first lady of the Republic of Guinea, Mrs. Hadja Conde Djene Kaba, a special guest of the African Women’s Forum session dedicated to youth entrepreneurship and women leadership, said everything goes smoothly with women when they are trusted. She gave an example of African women adhering to the terms of loan repayments as a measure of trust and reliability. Some African women are beneficiaries of support loans from financial institutions which they pay back as and when due. By this, Hadja Conde calls for policies that ensure that the needs of women in African societies are catered for.

The First Lady of Gambia Mrs. Fatoumatta Bah-Barrow spoke in the same line when she called for the provision of enabling environment that caters to the empowerment of youths and women.

In her speech, the Vice President of Liberia Mrs. Jewel Howard Taylor covers the relevance of South-South cooperation. Through the South-South Cooperation developing countries exchange resources, technology and knowledge to find solutions to common development challenges. With this aim in mind, the kingdom of Morocco brought together African countries to discuss issues affecting them and also providing solutions to move African nations out of poverty. Mrs. Taylor is however hopeful that innovation, inclusion and economic empowerment will provide space for women and youths to strive in business and politics.

In his remark, the founder of Crans Montana Jean-Paul Carteron, a believer in the abilities of women explained that the Pan Africa women network is an agenda of hope and positivity saying the Africa woman is the true key to the evolution of African societies and integration of the world.

An important side function of DAKHLA-AFRICA is the “Declaration of Dakhla”, initiated by Anass Doukkali, Minister of Health of Morocco, with the support of African Ministers attending the Forum. The declaration is dedicated to Universal Health Coverage and Health Security in Africa. It proposes a reform of the African health system include effective access to quality health services for at least 75% of the population and a reduction in maternal and infant mortality. It also recommends the establishment of an integrated and reactive African epidemiological vigilance system.

Health is wealth, the reason youth and women development is essential to the revival of the African continent. As the programmes of the forum continue to elicit global coverage, one is encouraged to live the dream of a new Africa propelled by transformative leadership. This new Africa is a function of the power of the youths of today to rise up to expectation.

To keep hope alive and encourage women and youths, the Crans Montana Forum came to an end by honoring youths and women with awards, celebrating them for their contributions to their societies.

As the organizers prepare for the next session of the Crans Montana forum holding in Geneva from 26 to 29 June 2019, with focus on restoring security and trust among nations, what is evident is the role of the March forum in addressing the main challenges facing the works of youth organizations, suggesting the most efficient models and tools to boost the participation of youth in the fight against violent extremism as well as working out processes of strengthening the role of youth organizations in conflict management. This involves exploring ways to involve young people fully and effectively in decision-making.

From my participation, I have no doubt that the gathering succeeded in strengthening the solidarity of African states as well as boosting the economic, social and environmental development of the continent. The forum emboldened Africa’s relationships with other countries notably in the framework of the South-South Cooperation.

Adebisi Adetunji (C) Broadcast Journalist, Media content provider, Trainer & consultant-@debisibusybeemedia, Behavioral Change Radio Drama, Communication4Development, Social Media Influencer, Controller Programs (FRCN) Founder Beehyve Empowerment and Development Initiative. Catch me on Twitter – @DebisiBusybee, Facebook & email – bisimodupe1975@gmail.com

The Unique Role of Women in Youth Development/Nation Building

Sonya Carson was a single mum who stopped attending school at grade three before she could read and write. She struggled with depression and worked so hard to raise her two sons Benjamin and Curtis. Even though Sonya was an illiterate, she devised a plan to get her sons to pay attention to reading and studying hard. Sonya refused to be a victim of her circumstances and pushed her sons to succeed in life. By this singular act she gave the world the renowned pediatric neurosurgeon who successfully operated on and separated conjoined twins joined at the back of the head. Ben Carson is currently serving his country as the United states Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

Mothers are life molders and nation builders.

The word, “busy” is synonymous to modern day life. Efforts to make ends meet and the rat race of achieving an acceptable social status standard has eroded family happy times and relationships. Modern technology although with its numerous benefits to human life and businesses comes with its own disadvantages and distractions. The younger generation is fascinated by the new technological gadgets and social media; many spend precious hours engaging in unprofitable conversations with no one to guide and mentor them appropriately. Fathers and mothers are busy trying to keep their families afloat in the midst of new economic challenges of the 21st century.

Gone are the days when our mothers were at home or worked at jobs that enabled them to be at home when children close from school. Mothers were able to monitor the activities of their children and guide or discipline as appropriate. No wonder then that many of us formed a close relationship with our moms; no wonder that so many poems and songs have been written to eulogize the many sacrifices of mothers as they played a vital role in molding children who become responsible adults to society. Times have changed and we, mothers are so busy that we can barely catch our breath in the numerous challenges that life throws at us. How do we even begin to turn the tide of things around?

A group of women decided to create time to come away from their busy schedule to learn, inspire and remind one another about what was most important– empowering each other and yet able to raise young people who become responsible and dependable adults to their families and society. The National Biennial Conference of Pastors wives a yearly gathering organized by Foursquare Gospel church in her 2018 edition brought together women from different works of life and circle in society. This year’s theme is tagged, “Women Of Wisdom”. In attendance were the wife of Ogun State governor represented by Mrs Omolola Osota and Mrs. Folakemi Edun; the State Director National Orientation Agency, Oyo Directorate, Mrs Dolapo Dosunmu; Wife of the General overseer, Foursquare gospel church, Rev. Mrs Olubisi Meduoye and other ministers and women. 

Representatives of wife of Ogun state governor – Mrs Folakemi Edun & Mrs Omolola Osita; State Director NOA – Mrs Dolapo Dosunmu

As the team who accompanied the keynote speaker, Mrs Dolapo Dosunmu, State Director, National Orientation Agency, Oyo Directorate drove through the camp ground of the Foursquare Gospel Church situated along Lagos-Ibadan express way, there was something serene about the environment.

Team of the Oyo State Director, NOA sets out for the Women of Wisdom Conference.

A cluster of housing units lined up the road blending with nature as trees and lush green grass surrounded the environment. It is the kind of place you would want to go to get away from the hustle and bustle of the city; somewhere to clear your head, rest and regain your energy to face life again. Indeed it was an air of excitement in the hall as women relaxed and were charged by various speakers.

Women at the conference

Mrs Dolapo Dosunmu in her presentation talked about the uniqueness of women’s role in Youth Development and nation building. Her introduction paints an apt picture of this:

“Women play significant roles in our society from birth till the end of their lives. The main responsibility of a woman is to preserve the human race. As a mother, her position is unique. She brings up the children with extreme care. The first school of a child is the lap of his/her mother. It is in recognition of the vital role of a mother in the upbringing of a child that Napoleon said, “Give me good mothers and I will give you a good nation”. Similarly, Brigham young said, “If you educate a man, you educate one person; if you educate a woman, you educate a nation”. No doubt, the progress of a nation depends largely upon the way mothers raise their children”.

Sharing from her experience working with youths, she talked about young people who couldn’t be bordered to show up to take up empowerment opportunities government offered to unemployed youths. Mrs Dosunmu and her team in efforts to enroll these young persons in the N-Power program, placed several calls to many young people who had been selected but refused to fulfill the requirement of concluding the registration with her agency. It seemed like we are grooming youths with “entitlement mentality” and give no serious thought and time to one of the rules of succeeding in life which is simply  to, “show up and be on time”! Mrs Dosunmu passionately appealed to women present at the meeting to monitor and pay attention to ensuring that their wards become young men and women who are willing to learn and take a chance with opportunities that life brings their way.

Rev. Mrs Olubisi Meduoye & ministers appreciates Guest speaker – Mrs Dosunmu after delivering her presentation.

Key Points to note from her address:

  • Build a mother-child friendly relationship with your child.
  • Be a role model – watch how you live and behave as children naturally pick up on their parent’s character traits and this eventually shapes their entire lifestyle.
  • Teach your kids to do the right thing regardless of what other people may be doing.
  • Do not indulge or pamper your children; discipline when necessary.
  • Find time for your children regardless of your tight schedule.
  • Do your best to provide basic needs of your children even if your husband is incapacitated, not economically viable or even a deviant who dodges his responsibilities. In due season you will reap the reward.
  • The youth face a myriad of challenges which can best be overcome when adults create time to exchange of opinions. Youths have a lot of issues they want to discuss with adults and when they get a listening ear, they open up and learn from the adult’s wealth of experience.

In spite of the challenge of the 21st century as mothers we must go back to creating time for our kids and raise them to become the kind of adults we can be proud of in future.

Remember that after acquiring all the money and fame, you eventually get the future you invested in or did not invest in. Build relationships and not just career successes.

Ben Carson had this to say about his mum, Sonya Carson when she passed away in 2017:

“She was one of God’s greatest blessings to me, and it was her foresight and discernment that pushed me to reach my dreams”.

Adebisi Adetunji (C) Founder Beehyve Empowerment and Development Initiative. Media content provider, Trainer & consultant-@debisibusybeemedia, Behavioral Change Radio Drama, Communication4Development, Social Media Influencer, Principal Producer (FRCN) Catch me on Twitter – @DebisiBusybee, Facebook & email – bisimodupe1975@gmail.com

Guest Post:Tony Elumelu Foundation to Launch the World’s Largest Digital Platform for African Entrepreneurs.

We all need dream supporters to help bring alive our goals. Organizations like the one in this post,  Sade Osigwe, a dear friend and colleague shares below,  gives hope to young entrepreneurs in Nigeria. We need more philanthropic individuals and bodies like this. 

IMG-20180823-WA0001
Some Entrepreneurs with the Founders of Tony Elumelu Foundation

Nigeria will on October 25, 2018 play host to two major African Presidents. They are President Nana Akufo-Addo of Ghana and President Uhuru Kenyatta of Kenya.

The event is the 2018 Tony Elumelu Entrepreneurship Forum,(TEF),taking place at the Federal Palace Hotel,Lagos.

The forum will also host about 5000 Entrepreneurs and 200 Investors as well as Government Administrators and Policy makers. The TEF founder,Tony O.Elumelu is expected to moderate the interactive session with the two African Presidents.

The brain behind the summit which is also the Africa’s leading entrepreneurship-focused philanthropic organisation,The Tony Elumelu Foundation had committed $100 million to empower 10,000 entrepreneurs over a period of 10 years.

Being in its 4th year, the foundation has empowered 4,460 entrepreneurs with a total investment of USD 20million,out of which 4000 were funded directly by the foundation while the remaining 460 were sponsored by TEF partners.

The Entrepreneurship forum was borne out of the foundation’s resolve to foster trade and business networking opportunities just as the 2018 theme centres on ”empowering African Entrepreneurs”.

This year’s event will also feature the launch of the world’s largest digital platform for African Entrepreneurs. Similarly,there will be a pitching competition and Investor-ready panel session for the budding Entrepreneurs.

Writter: Afolasade Osigwe-braimah is a broadcast /online journalist, producer, presenter, translator and script writer. Afolasade also trained as a Demographer with great interest in women,children and the elderly as well as development -oriented endeavours. She received the 2017 TEF African journalism fellowship to cover the 3rd TEF Entrepreneurship Forum in Lagos in 2017.

Adebisi Adetunji (C) 

 

What You Must Know Before Getting Pregnant #safemotherhood

Media visit to NURHI 72 hour makeover PHCs in Ibadan. Mrs Elegbeleye Atinuke (Senior CHEW) in an FP counseling session with a mother – Mrs Lamidi Rukayat. Media group was graciously allowed to witness the session with client’s permission.

What you know can help you make informed choices. The problem is sometimes we do not have access to the necessary information to help achieve a quality life and improved economic power.

An information shocked I and participants present at a Media Family Planning advocacy Roundtable meeting organized by Development Communications Network(DEVCOMS) supported by The Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative(NURHI). I have always felt that ectopic pregnancies occur only in the fallopian tube but at this meeting, we heard that a woman was reported to have actually carried to term a baby that developed in her abdomen. The facilitator Dr. Tunde Olatunji explained further that the abdomen is that place which houses the womb, stomach, liver, kidney etc for those of us not medically inclined. So rest easy the abdomen is not the same as the stomach where food is digested.

According to medical reports ectopic pregnancies rarely do survive however It was possible for this woman to have her baby grow in her abdomen and termed instead of her womb. Probably early detection and close monitoring by skilled and well trained medical personnel. Imagine if she had delayed going early to register for antenatal care! The ectopic pregnancy growing in her abdomen would not have been discovered on time which could have been fatal for her and the unborn child. You can read up more about Abdominal pregnancy and the threat it poses to  a woman.

It is very important therefore that every woman, expectant or a would be mother be informed about preconception, antenatal and postnatal care available to them.

In lay man’s terms, ectopic pregnancy is when the sperm fertilizes the egg of a woman outside the womb. This means the embryo gets implanted and begins to develop outside the womb. Usually, ectopic pregnancies are flushed out because it is high risk to the health and life of a mother.

According to an article written by the American Pregnancy Association, known risk factors for ectopic pregnancies include:

• Previous abdominal/pelvic surgery
• Several induced abortions
• Pelvic inflammatory disease
• Maternal age of 33 -44 years

Knowledge is like a light bulb in a person’s head which sheds light on an issue. @debisibusybee

A few take away from Dr. Tunde Olatunji’s lecture on Improving Maternal Health

  1.  Preconception care involves providing adequate education about what pregnancy means to a woman’s health. Would be mothers should be encouraged to take care of themselves, eat right and stay healthy. This will prepare their body for the challenges that come with conception
  2. The health of a woman during pregnancy, at birth and postpartum(after delivery), is of crucial importance.
    Register early enough for antenatal care. This will give the pregnant woman to have access to education about what to eat, tests and immunizations required for expectant mothers; need to rest in between births and not have frequent deliveries etc.
    – Deliveries should be carried out by skilled birth attendants and health personnel.
    – Infection if not diagnosed early can make a woman who delivered safely to fall ill. And this can be a threat to her life.
    – Postnatal care provides information about breastfeeding and when to start feeding the child with other types of foods; immunization dozes for newborns; and when it is safe to have another child.

The first 24 hours after delivery critical for mothers and newborns. 2/3 of all maternal deaths occur during the postnatal period. – Dr. Olatunji

3. Grandmas and mothers-in-law to be educated about old practices that can be harmful to the wellbeing of mother and newborn. Example massaging the umbilical cord with a hot cloth heated on a lantern.

4. The burden of maternal mortality is an important input to health decision-making. Skilled health personnel are inadequate in health facilities; where we ought to have 15-17 personnel there are only 5 -6 skilled workers.

The government needs to invest in health care in order to prevent depletion of its populace and reduce productive manpower.

Family Planning services should also be budgeted for as it has been reported that this helps reduce maternal death by 40%

Life is precious and the one who is the vehicle that conveys life should not die while trying to achieve this. Every life counts and matters. – @debisibusybee

Adebisi Adetunji (C) Founder Beehyve Empowerment and Development Initiative. Media content provider, Trainer & consultant, Behavioral Change Radio Drama, Communication4Development, Social Media Influencer, Principal Producer (FRCN) 
Catch me on Twitter @DebisiBusybee
Facebook & email – bisimodupe1975@gmail.com

#WomenYouCanRun 1: What You Must Know If You Want to Join Politics

This morning listening to Oluwaseun Omoakinola, a dear colleague, and brother on his program, “The Conversation”, on Splash FM 105.5 I was richly informed about practical things women who intend to join politics must know. I will be sharing a few interesting down to earth points from one of the guests he featured on the program. It has inspired a title for a series I have been working on and hope to begin to share here. My own small contribution to encouraging more women to be bold in taking up leadership and political positions once they have what it takes.

There is all lot of discussions about women’s participation in leadership and particularly on increasing involvement in politics. And so I hope to be sharing practical points of view of notable women and men leaders and also profile women we can all be inspired by their success in leadership positions and in the political arena. And so welcome to the first post in the series of #WomenYouCanRun 1.

Hon. Nnena Ukeje Elendu on the floor of the House of Representatives. Credits: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq7gqj6ypsA

Honorable Nnena Ukeje Elendu has been a member of the House of Representatives since 2007. She is a third term member representing Bende Federal constituency in Abia State under the People’s Democratic party.

Her Political Aim: To leave a much better country than I met it.

Honorable Nnena’s Lecture at an event organized by Women in Business and Public Service(WIMBIZ) an NGO for women on 22 March at Eko Hotel and Suites. It is in commemoration of the 2018 International Women’s Day.
Theme: Women, Politics and Nation Building (Press4Progress)

If you are running for office as a woman you must answer these questions:

1) Self- Evaluation: Why do I want to run? Find an answer to that question because people will ask. Men are not psychoanalyzed when running for elected office. They believe that every woman who wants to run has a blind ambition to control everyone. Determine also what office you want to run for. Is it a senatorial position, Governor, House of Representatives etc.
2) Are you Prepared? What are you bringing from your present life into office? I was in the hospitality business and found out that my strength was in hold anyone spellbound in a five minutes conversation. And so I was able to convince people easily, this I brought into office when I was elected.
3) Emotionally are you prepared? You are not allowed to have an emotional meltdown; you are not allowed to cry in public. In politics Might is right. You need to be strong.
4) Physically are you prepared? Campaigns are tough. You are up from 5am – 6pm. You must be physically strong and ready to give it the time it takes.
5) What is your cultural view about women in leadership? Family questions must be answered. What is your family’s take on a strong woman? Break the idea that you are either married or be in politics. A woman who can run both the home and be a good politician.

Having answered these questions you are ready to move on to the next level.

A few more points to note:

  • You must understand that competence, CV doesn’t win elections; emotions win elections. The aim of your opponent is fake news, emotional scam and alternative fact.
  • The most important persons in your party is the chairman, the National Organizing chairman, and the secretary, make friends with them. They are the ones in charge of sending your name to INEC.
  • Develop very thick skin…keep your children and family out of social media. You can read stuff about you that you will never believe in the media. Prepare your family for this.

Adebisi Adetunji (C) Project Director Beehyve Empowerment and Development Initiative. Media content provider, Trainer & consultant, Behavioral change Radio Drama. Communication4Development
Catch me on Twitter @DebisiBusybee
Facebook & email – bisimodupe1975@gmail.com

Number Changes a Whole Lot – Why Population is Important #WPD #Nigeria

Number indeed changes a whole lot of things. To understand what I mean, I will use these illustrations:

1) If you have 25 people sitting in an 18 seat Bus that is called overloading. Continuous overloading of the same bus by the driver will eventually cause quick wear and tear problem. Seats in the bus will quickly get worn out and tear, the engine and other parts of the vehicle will soon give way under the pressure of carrying more than it can bear. Overloading will also slow down the car such that it cannot move at its maximum speed. If the driver decides to over speed with too many passengers or load in the bus an accident may occur.
2) In order for a company or organization to thrive and prosper the owner(s) must plan for the number of employees, they will need to engage their services. Such plans will include how much goes for salaries; office spaces to be provided, health insurance, housing, and other benefits to motivate staff; parking space and more. No wonder then that when a company is not doing well financially or becomes less productive staff is downsized. This, of course, leaves a number of people out of job. So many companies try to work within a budget and with the number of employees they can cope with.
3) In the instance of a country, a census is carried out to determine the number of her citizens in order to be able to budget, plan and allocate resources to make life easy for members of the society.

If the above illustrations are true why then do we think that A population is just a number and nothing more?!

The population (number of people) in a family, community, village, office, country matters. Why? Because population or our number determines how and whether we will enjoy our resources and live comfortably well at least to a reasonable extent. Our number determines the number of basic amenities be provided such as houses, roads and other infrastructure. It also determines the amount of food that is needed to feed everyone or else people will starve. The more the number, the more investments to be made in various sectors such as agriculture, education/schools, health care, social welfare, jobs etc. The cost of governance goes up with increasing population.

The point of population stabilization is to reduce or minimize misery – Roger Bengston

As we celebrate another world population day come 11th July 2017, let us take seriously the issue of our growing number. According to the report of the United Nation’s 2017 Revision of World Population Prospects, Nigeria is projected to overtake the United States in population by 2050. To get a clear picture check out this calculation:

The US has 50 states and its population is currently about 326 million and projects 402million by 2050. Nigeria with 36 states is estimated to be about 182million currently. If we are to overtake the US by 2050 it means we would have grown by more than 220million in 33years while the US will have grown by just 76million.

This means that we are growing at the speed of a jet as a DEVELOPING NATION WITH SO MUCH WE ARE DEALING WITH! Can you imagine what will happen then judging by our numerous existing problems highlighted below?!
Wake up, people!
Wake up Nigeria!

The national budget of Nigeria for 2017 sums up to about N7.44trillion still many people live below the international poverty line of 1.90 dollar a day. Salaries are owed workers in many states; health facilities are ill-equipped to cater for our beaming population. There are no chairs and tables to give students an enabling environment to learn in our public schools; lecturers in higher institutions are more on strike than in school because they want to be better enumerated and also demand that world class facilities be provided in their institutions. Students also go on protests over demands for more hostels and classrooms to be built, hike in school fees. Many young people graduate every year than the labor market can handle. Our aging population is increasing every year as life expectancy is now improved. There are more dependants than the working class/those contributing to the economy. The government still has no serious welfare plan in place for any group of its vulnerable citizens.

The list of issues and problems facing us as a nation are endless. Are we going to keep pretending that these problems do not exist or handle them with kid glove?

It is time to pay attention to how to begin to solve these problems and reduce the cost of governance. It is time to plan for our collective future as a people.

We need to have a culture of working with numbers and planning ahead.

This year’s theme for the World Population Day:

Family  Planning, Birth Spacing: Empowering & developing nations.

“Family Planning and Child Birth Spacing are personal decisions but their profound implications on the health, economic and social well-being of the society are far reaching”. Chief Eze Duruiheoma, SAN – Chairman National Population Commission Nigeria.

We can have a better and great country if we seriously pay attention and act now to make life better for Nigerians. Government need to invest rightly and wisely.

People need to make informed choices to live a better and meaningful life.

Adebisi Adetunji(C)